Fatigue

Solution: Fatigue

Fatigue, specifically visual fatigue, refers to strain on the eyes. It is recognized as an important factor in today’s world where electronic displays strain the eyes causing pain, pressure, dry eye, tearing, irritation, redness, blurred vision, double vision, neck pain, back and shoulder pain (Bullough, Akashi, Fay, Figueiro, 2006; Blehm, Vishnu, Khattak, Mitra, Yee, 2005; Ukai, 2008). Fatigue can narrow focus and attention leading to human error in information processing and decision making (Rajabi-Vardanjani, et al., 2013). Presence of visual fatigue is rapidly growing exponentially as the use of technology grows as well (Rajabi-Vardanjani, et al., 2013). However, visual fatigue is not limited to visual displays as driver related visual fatigue is another example of a common task influencing fatigue (Hu & Lodewijks, 2021).

Eye Tracking: Fatigue can be measured in real-time using sensitive, quantifiable, and accurate eye tracking. (Glimne, Öqvist Seimyr, Ygge, Nylén, Brautaset, 2013), blinking (Divjak, Bischof, 2009), vergence (Sirohey, Rosenfeld, Duric, 2002; Pickwell, Jenkins, Yekta, 1987; Ukwade, Bedell, Harwerth, 2003) and other eye movements (e.g. Hu & Lodewijks, 2021).

HarmonEyes uses the eye tracking signal, machine learning and AI to answer the following questions related to fatigue:

  1. What is your current level of fatigue?
    1. Option 1
      1. Low Fatigue: low level of tiredness, no headache, no eye soreness. Significant reserve if needed to perform tasks.
    2. Option 2
      1. Moderate Fatigue: moderate level of tiredness, may have a headache, focus is noticeably impaired, eyes experience tiredness, and may be sore leading to occasional rubbing. Eyes may seem dry. Some performance effects, especially in long sequential processing tasks.
    3. Option 3
      1. High Fatigue: difficulty focusing, difficulty making decisions, may have a headache, eyes experience pain, pressure, dry eye, tearing, irritation, redness, blurred vision, double vision, neck pain, back and shoulder pain. Behaviors such as eye rubbing, yawning. Performance is slow and severely impaired.
  2. When will fatigue level change? This assumes the same activity is engaged in without intervention.
    1. Predicted future fatigue level:
      1. Low
      2. Moderate
      3. High
    2. Time to reach future state:
      1. Minutes and seconds
      2. Milliseconds
    3. Likelihood window:
      1. Ceiling level: defined as the average root mean squared error plus one standard deviation.
      2. Floor level: defined as the average root mean squared error minus one standard deviation.